Soviet Cars History
This is the history of the brand Soviet Cars since the establishment of the company and up to the most modern of vehicles produced under this brand.
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In fact , almost the entire history of the Soviet car industry - a history of copying and borrowing of Western counterparts .
GAZ A / Ford A
The first production car the new Soviet state that was produced from 1932 to 1936 . The car was originally presented in the body of a chaise , which eventually supplemented with a sedan and a pickup truck . The engine of 3.3 liters and 40 hp A GAS clocked up to 90 km / h Retail sales of the car were single ( a total of private hands dispersed about 1,000 cars) , and the main customers are government services , the army and taxi companies . Total output amounted to 41,917 vehicles.
At its core GAS A was a licensed copy of the U.S. Ford Model A, which is the beginning of production in the USSR has been discontinued in the United States . In the process of adaptation of Soviet engineers and designers based on GAZ And created a few modifications , including fire , armored and polugusenechnuyu .
As planned by the Soviet government, KIM-10 was to be the first mass car intended for sale to the public . The basis for the first " people's" car of the USSR was technically simple and inexpensive Ford Perfect model 1938 manufactured by the English department of the American brand . Soviet engineers for projects in the U.S. were created stamps of three bodies: a coupe, sedan and convertible .
The first production models of the CMM -10 were issued in April 1941. And in less than three months after production was halted - the Great Patriotic War . In total, the time to make the plant less than 1,000 vehicles.
Moskvich 400 / Opel Kadett K38
Ideological follower of KIM-10 . The new "people's " car , it was decided to establish on the basis of one of the German "trophy " machines , which ended the war in the Soviet Union have accumulated a lot.
The choice fell on a fairly modern for the time Opel Kadett K38 model 1937. True to recreate the car had almost over, as most of the documentation and the Opel plant equipment were destroyed or taken away by the Americans ( by Opel in 1929 belonged to the concern General Motors).
As a result, in December 1946, they released their first Moskvich 400 . At the beginning of the production car equipped with the 1.1 - liter engine with 23 hp, three-stage manual transmission and independent front suspension. Muscovite produced in several types of bodywork, including sedan , coupe, wagon , pickup and chassis cab . In total, from 1946 to 1956 was produced 247,861 cars .
GAZ- M20 Pobeda / Opel Kapitan
The first production Soviet car with a monocoque body . GAZ -20 was equipped with weak for its weight four-cylinder engine capacity of 2.1 liters and output of 52 hp with a three-stage gearbox without synchromesh ( synchronizers later appeared on the second and third gears ) . A limited version of GAZ- M20G with a more powerful 90 -horsepower motor shestitsilidrovym was created specifically for the security services.
GAZ-M20 was not created by direct copying , and was the quintessential technical ideas throughout trophy and delivered under Lend -Lease equipment , which happened in the Soviet Union after the war. However, a significant role in the creation of the Victory played a German Opel Kapitan ( at that time - the flagship of the Opel) - it was his design features have been adapted in many ways to create a new model.
By the way , the modification of Victory (GAZ - M72 ) on the drive chassis GAZ -69 model 1955 is , in fact, the world's first crossover - that is all-wheel drive off-roader with a monocoque body . Total from 1946 to 1958 was issued 235,999 vehicles.
Just as victory , GAZ -21 is not a direct analogue of the Soviet any of the western models . Moreover, the initial design domestic designers acted entirely on his own , trying to upgrade an existing GAZ-M20 .
As early as the sea trials of the prototype next-generation plant GAZ were taken for the study and comparison of foreign models , among which were listed models of Ford, Plymouth, Chevrolet, Kaiser, Willys, Opel.
As a result, a new GAZ- 21 Volga was stylistically closely resemble all the foreign counterparts of the time, but a copy of one of them was not. In addition, the Western models were borrowed some of the technical solutions that have been recognized by the designers in creating successful or professionals who have not had the experience .
Thus, the GAZ- 21 Volga was the first serial Soviet car , which was set automatic transmission , created on the basis of transmission Ford-O-Matic.
During the production of GAZ -21 had a large number of modifications with different bodies and engines, including , wagon, " front " convertible cars intelligence with the engine V8, as well as export diesel versions . Total from 1956 to 1970 was issued 639,483 vehicles.
ZAZ 965/Fiat 600
After the release of the model Moskvitch 402, which was almost twice as expensive as a " budget " predecessor, once again become a question of creating a cheap car able to carry four people. Having studied Western counterparts , Soviet designers have chosen to adapt the model - it was Fiat 600 model in 1955 .
The compact two-door hatchback and the rear-engined rear-drive layout . ( Front-wheel drive cars the designers were not considered , since the industry was not able to master the production of constant velocity joints ( CV joints ) .
As a result , Fiat 600 has been significantly redesigned in the factory MZMA and was originally called Moskvich- 444. However, mass production was mastered at two plants in Zaporozhye and Melitopol , after which the car was named ZAZ- 965. The car had a length of 3.33 meters three-volume body ( as opposed to the two-volume Fiat), four-cylinder air -cooled, 870 " bricks " (26 hp) and front suspension on two transverse torsion . Total from 1960 to 1969 was released 322,166 cars of all modifications.
ZAZ 966 ( 968 ) / NSU Prinz 4
The next generation of Cossacks received index 966 ( after a minor upgrade - 968 ) , so it was copied from the western counterpart. At this time the appearance of the Soviet machine almost verbatim repeated exterior West German NSU Prinz 4 samples of 1961, which in turn was himself stylistically close , first of all , to the Chevrolet Corvair 1959.
German car did not have the advanced technical elements , but was a success thanks to the low cost and simplicity of the design - initially two-cylinder air-cooled engine ( the engine later in 1200 V4), synchronized gearbox and differential were in a single package in the back of the car.
All these technical features have been completely reconstructed and ZAZ 966 (968) . The only " brand " honors have "ears" - the air intakes on the sides of ZAZ, who disappeared with access restyled version ZAZ 968M . " Ushastny " did not possess a high degree of reliability, but was very " die hard " - the ability to move with strong technical problem was the basis of many jokes. A total of modifications ZAZ 966 (968) on the line lasted from 1967 until 1994 .
GAZ 24/Ford Falcon/Plymouth Valiant
The most massive car Gorky Automobile Plant . Like the previous model , " Twenty- Four " was designed not " a carbon copy ", and on the basis of common trends models of the American car industry in those years. Stylistically, the exterior and the interior clearly discern the features of such cars as the Ford Falcon and Plymouth Valiant of the early 1960s .
The main component of the aggregate was a 2.5- liter petrol engine ( 85 or 95 hp) and four- mechanical transmission. On a limited batch of machines installed 5.5 -liter V8 engine mated to "automatic".
In addition, Soviet designers were trying to master the installation under the hood of the GAZ- 24 foreign -six petrol engines as well as the French diesel for export options . Structurally, the GAZ -24 was at the level of their American counterparts, but noticeably inferior to European cars of the same class .
As well as the GAZ -21 Volga had a new set of bodywork modifications and has become the most prestigious media machine of his time in the Soviet Union . Total from 1970 to 1992 was released 1,481,561 GAZ- 24. The upgraded version of the GAZ -24 produced flesh until 2009.
VAZ 2101/Fiat 124
Today, hardly anyone knows that the legendary Soviet " Cents" is a licensed copy of the Italian Fiat 124 model in 1966 , which in the same year received the title of " Car of the Year in Europe." In general , the Soviet car industry has become truly massive , starting it with a VAZ -2101 .
With the introduction of this model in the Soviet Union is not built a new plant , but also subsidiaries for securing and developing road infrastructure for the population.
Despite the grand title , Fiat 124 was an advanced car for its time, but differed good consumer and driving dynamics of the simplicity of design and low price.
Technically, the VAZ -2101 replica Fiat is not, as the latter was originally created based on European roads are good and warm climate . During the driving test engineers " peretryahnul " design almost all components and assemblies , making the car safer in the Soviet realities.
For drivers of the time VAZ -2101 became a true technological breakthrough in many ways , most of which was comfort as rideable and operational .
Despite the fact that the production of Fiat 124 was completed in 1976 , VAZ -2101 and all subsequent modifications existed on the line almost 42 years ( !) From 1970 right up to September 2012 .
Moskvich 2141/Simca-Chrysler 1307
In the second half of the seventies of the last century, following the example of the new management of AvtoVAZ plant AZLK began seeking a foreign partner with the finished model , the production of which it was possible to establish the Soviet Union.
On the concept and price, "the new Moskvich" was to be the front wheel and take place between mass and prestige Lada Volga.
The choice fell on the French car Simca- 1307 sample in 1975 , manufactured a subsidiary concern Chrysler Europe. As well as the Fiat 124 at the time , Simca- 1307 in 1976 received the title of " Car of the Year in Europe."
AZLK designers have completely redesigned the front of the vehicle for the installation of domestic motor , replaced the rear Simca semi-independent torsion beam suspension with coil springs and modified body panels . However, the body structure and overall appearance of the model , called the Moskvich 2141, repeated French car .
The main advantages of the machines were spacious and ergonomically designed interior for its time , and a good directional stability and ease of management. Cons - weak outdated engines from VAZ -2106 or the Ufa Engine Plant . Frankly poor build quality , components and corrosion resistance , in the end, and to destroy the car , and then the entire plant AZLK .
During the history of Moskvich 2141 there have been several attempts at modernization , including the installation of a diesel engine and gasoline engine Ford Renault. It was also released a few modifications in the sedan , coupe, station wagon and a draft pick . All they have left stick or exhibition . Moskvich 2141 was produced from 1986 to 2003 .
Volga Siber / Chrysler Sebring / Dodge Stratus
By the end of the "zero " years , the company GAZ once again raised the question of replacing the archaic of all model parameters Volga , which design knocked neither more nor less than 38 years.
According to the established tradition of the new Soviet model , it was decided to make a copy of the license is removed from the production car in the U.S. Chrysler Sebring (Dodge Stratus) of 2000 , moreover, that the domestic plant already had an agreement with Chrysler to supply engines .
As a result, in 2008, with a minimum of external and technical changes to the car went into production under the name of Volga Siber. The machine was installed "native" 2.4 liter engine with four-speed automatic at first , and then with a five-speed manual transmission. There were plans to install and 2.0 petrol engines and a V6 2.7 -liter, but it was not to be .
Just two years later , in October 2010 , due to the extremely low demand production of Volga Siber was minimized . The failure obsnit : domestic consumers waited for the new Volga - that is a large , structurally simple and cheap car, and got a relatively modern " foreign car " appropriate value.
With the end of production Volga Siber history of passenger car GAZ was over. To date, the freed capacity been established contract assembly of cars Skoda, Volkswagen and Chevrolet. Total from 2008 to 2010 was released 8933 car Volga Siber.
Lada Largus / Dacia Logan MCV
In 2009, the Russian authorities have appealed to the leadership of the alliance Renault-Nissan with a request for modernization of the plant AvtoVAZ ( French- Japanese group at the time already owned 25% of shares of the Company ) .
It was decided that the joint production of a new model - the versatile Lada Largus, which is a licensed copy of the Franco -Romanian car Dacia Logan MCV. Especially for the new models were created or converted new production facilities. In addition , the level of localization of the new machine has exceeded 60 %, and by 2014 should reach 72%.
Aggregate Lada Largus is no different from its European " analogue ", which will soon be presented in the second generation . Under the hood is a 1.6 petrol engine with 84 or 105 horsepower, with a five- docked mechanics. Changes in domestic engineers came down to " point " suspension refinements , installation of plastic and rubber anthers , mudguards and protective linings.
Lada Largus only available in station wagon , with a five and a seven-seat version. There is also a commercial cargo modification. We consider the installation of an automatic transmission. In any case , Lada Largus to date - the most modern model, produced under the Russian brand . Under the plan , the production car should last until 2023.
To date, all of the companies that manufacture the Russian cars, " alive " was only giant AvtoVAZ with its subsidiary IzhAuto , and that, thanks to the unprecedented financial investment on the part of the state. And Sollers group of companies that has managed to keep producing UAZ off-road vehicles .
However, AvtoVAZ should soon go completely under the control of the alliance Renault-Nissan, which will focus specifically on the issue of Russia's own models ( albeit under the brand Lada). A Sollers already focused on the licensed assembly of vehicles Ford, SsangYong, Isuzu, and the end of 2012 - Mazda.
Most likely, in the next decade history automobile Soviet (Russian ) auto industry to its logical end. Leaving the endless attempts to adapt and modernize outdated own and Western counterparts , Russian companies will simply become production sites worldwide automotive brands .