Holden Cars History
This is the history of the brand Holden since the establishment of the company and up to the most modern of vehicles produced under this brand.
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Holden - Australian car manufacturer , originally independent , now the Department of General Motors.
James Alexander Holden emigrated to South Australia from England in 1852 and in 1856 founded the firm JA Holden and Co in Adelaide. In 1905, Edward Vivol Holden, James' son , entered the business , being interested in cars. The company has developed through partners, and in 1908, Holden and Frost started production of spare parts for cars. In 1913 the company was producing wheelchairs for motorcycles. Since 1917, trade restrictions , have led to the formation of a new company in 1919 called Holden's Motor Body Builders Ltd (HMBB). Then Holden set my body on imported chassis , in particular from Chevrolet. In 1931, General Motors bought the business and formed General Motors-Holden's Ltd.
The first factory Holden, located in the Fisherman's Bend (Port Melbourne ), was completed in 1936, and in 1939 began to build a second plant in Peydzhvude . However, the beginning of the Second World War delayed the production car : the plants produced car bodies , field guns , aircraft and engines . Yet even before the end of the war , the Australian Government has decided to contribute to the Australian automotive industry. And General Motors, and Ford provided the government of Australia to design their own experience of the first Australian car. First, the choice fell on offer Ford, but this option is required reliable financial assistance from the state. GM proposal was made in view of the fact that almost did not require government involvement . After the war, Holden returned to the production of car bodies, this time for Buick, Chevrolet, Pontiac and Vauxhall.
Since then, under the direction of Lawrence Holden Hartnett has decided to adhere to the policy of independent development of cars , as adapted to the specific Australian conditions. This led to a conflict with its parent company General Motors, as GM insisted on the release of the American model of development. In the end, a compromise decision - as the basis for the first post-war " Holden " was taken not gone into production in the U.S. version of the draft post-war Chevrolet.
Production started in 1948, and the lists of pre-orders were stretched until 1949 or longer. Despite the fact that the project car called the " 48-215 ", sold it simply as a «Holden». The unofficial name «FX», born within the walls of Holden, belonged to upgrade car production in 1953 .
During the 1950s, Holden dominated the Australian car market. General Motors has invested a lot in increasing production , which helped cover the postwar demand for cars . Holden cars have been designed specifically for the harsh conditions of Australia, and had a large margin of safety , which was a clear advantage in the glory of his bezdorozhem Australian outback .
Model 48-215 sedans were produced in parallel with the pick-up truck (coupé utility) 50-2106 since 1951 , the latter has been recognized by the people as a great "workhorse" for the Australian countryside. Production and sedan and a pickup truck continued with minor changes until 1953 , when they were replaced by a restyled model FJ. In addition to a sedan and a pickup truck now offers a third body type - delivery van .
FJ was the first big change in the production of Holden since 1948. Over the years, this car has gained the status of " icon" , and to this day is one of Australia's most recognizable vehicles. A new grille , large rear window changed the shape of the car , but the body parts were left unchanged. Despite the small changes compared to the 48-215 , marketing campaigns and the prices are the same, and FJ maintained high levels of sales , up until Holden does not have begun to produce a completely new model .
In 2005 , at the Australian International Motor Show in Sydney, Holden introduced the replica model FJ - concept Efijy.
Next model Holden, FE, started producing in 1956. The car received a new variant with a body "versatile " in booklets company named «Station Sedan». In 1956 he opened another factory Holden, created in 1959 to about 19 000 jobs.
Good sales in Australia have allowed Holden to reach a 50% market share by 1958 , when I got an upgraded model in the FC. It was the first model , which was tested on the new range Holden Proving Ground in Lang Lang, Victoria.
In the 1960s, for the first time Holden faces serious competition - the main competitors have been importing their cars. In 1960, the company introduced its new car , FB. Exterior machine was set up under the obvious influence of Chevrolet mid-1950s : the rear " fins ", panoramic windscreen with reverse tilt the front roof pillars . By the time many considered the appearance of this model is overdue. Many also believed that borrowed the style is not very well suited to a more compact compared to American cars " Holden " (according to the size it was about halfway between the Soviet 407th "Muscovites " and "Volga" GAZ- 21).
FB was the first model , which has been adapted for sale at LHD car markets , which significantly increased the export potential of the company.
In 1960, Ford introduced its new Falcon in Australia , only a month after the start of sales in the United States. Fortunately for Holden, Falcon was unstable , especially the front suspension , making it of little use for the road conditions in Australia .
In response to the Falcon'a EK Holden released the restyled in 1961 , the new model sported two-tone color, and was equipped with optional automatic transmission, but the design was still out of date , in the style of the second half of the fifties.
The all-new model EJ came out in 1962 , making his debut in the role of a new luxury model Premier.
Improved model series EH, published in 1963 , for the first time got a new engine Red Engine, more powerful than the old Grey Engine. The front suspension has become the vehicle for the first time besshkvornevoy .
Series HD 1965 introduced a new automatic Powerglide, and X2 option with a more powerful version of the 2.9 liter. 6 -cylinder engine.
In 1966 he published a HR, quantities sold more than 250,000 vehicles in two years. The changes were the front and rear of the car , as well as increased volume of the engine. In addition , HR got the front seat belts - Holden became the first Australian company to include this safety system as standard equipment on all of its vehicles . This spurred the completion of the construction of a new factory in Queensland.
In 1964, Holden began assembling the compact model HA -based Vauxhall Viva. This model has been replaced by a new - Holden Torana in 1967 and marked the end of the development of Viva Vauxhall production in Australia.
Holden proposed a model LC - Torana c new design, and in 1969 , a new 6 -cylinder Holden. In developing the Torana was planned as a racing car, but studies have shown that this model is popular on the civilian market .
Holden collaboration with Chevrolet and Pontiac stopped in 1968, simultaneously with the release of a new flagship model HK. Was presented the first production V8 engine Chevrolet, imported from Canada .
HK series included a prestige model with elongated doors Brougham two-door coupe and Monaro. SPecial model assumed a new name Kingswood, and the model became known as the Standard Belmont.
The first Australian V8, fully developed and put on stream on its own , Holden V8 debuted with the concept of Hurricane in 1969, before being approved for a restyled model HT. It was available in two versions: the 4.2 liter and 5.0 liter.
Despite the emergence of strong competitors , primarily Ford Falcon, Chrysler Valiant , and Japanese cars, in the 1960 Holden remained the best selling car in Australia . Sales discovery spurred exports of sedans and station wagons Kingswood in Indonesia , Trinidad and Tobago, and South Africa.
In 1970 , Holden Reorganized plant in South Australia under the SCP production Tri-Matic. A new three-speed manual transmission debuted in HG. Over the next year Holden has launched a new series of HQ. By this time, Holden was producing all the cars in Australia, and all of them have been developed entirely in Australia , yet the end of the decade, Holden was producing cars developed overseas. HQ has been thoroughly redesigned , introducing a new spatial frame and monocoque construction. Among other innovations were presented to the new suspension and a longer wheelbase for station wagons. Series included the new prestige Statesman brand with a long wheelbase , designed to replace the outdated Brougham. Statesman also deserves attention because it did not sell as «Holden», but as «Statesman»; this model was exported to other countries as the Chevrolet Statesman.
Frame HQ has led to the creation of two-door Monaro, and despite the presence on the market of similar -sized competitors, the HQ series has become the best selling in the history of Holden ( 3 years sold 485,650 cars). HQ series was reborn with the introduction of HJ, which represented a new front panel and a new rear bumper. These details are preserved , albeit with minor changes in the series HX and HZ.
On the HX series put recycled engines that meet government standards for harmful emissions , while the HZ provides enhanced management control and improved comfort with a new suspension system RTS ( born Radial Tuned Suspension).
During the 1970s, Holden used the advertising jingle " Futi , meat-pies , kangaroos and Holden cars " (a reference to the American jingle Chevrolet «Baseball, Hot Dogs, Apple Pies and Chevrolet»). Production Torana continued on the basis of larger mid-size series of LH, which was published in 1974, and produced only 4- door sedan. LH Torana was one of the few cars that are sold all over the world with 4 -, 6 - and 8- cylinder engines . This trend persisted until Holden did not provide Sunbird in 1976, in fact, Four-cylinder Torana with a new name . With the release of the series LX Holden introduced the three-door hatchbacks Sunbird and Torana. In 1978 , opening a series of UC, Torana is the last generation that brought glory Thorens legendary racing cars in Australia.
In 1975, Holden introduced the compact Gemini, the Australian version of the Opel Kadett. Gemini was designed by the Japanese subsidiary of GM, Isuzu. Gemini put on 1.6 liter 4- cylinder engine. Gemini quickly gained popularity, was the best-selling car in its class and was produced until 1987 .
The most popular car Holden - Commodore - was introduced in 1978 as VB. The new family car was based on the basis of Opel Rekord, but upstream from Opel Senator, used to accommodate large six -cylinder and V8 engines Holden. Originally Commodore led the list of sales of Holden in Australia, but then borrowing overseas car design prevented the public perception of the machine . In particular, it was narrower than its predecessor , and his rival Falcon, making it less comfortable for three rear passengers.
Holden Torana stopped production in 1979 , and the Sunbird in 1980. After appearing in the 1978 Commodore Torana became the "intermediate " between the smaller but more economical Gemini and the larger , more representative Commodore. The closest analogue Torana was the Camira, released in 1982.
1980 was a difficult for Australian automakers. The government committed itself to the production of a smaller number of more fuel-efficient cars and increase exports. Decade began with the closure of the plant in Pedzhvude and the start of production Rodeo, rebadzhennogo Isuzu Rodeo. Rodeo was available in versions with two and four -wheel drive diesel and gasoline engines. Model series was updated in 1988 with the arrival of a series of TF, based on the Isuzu TF.
Holden has introduced a new series of WB in 1980. At the same time, the model series Hq, HX and HZ could not compete with similar vehicles in a line of Ford. Accordingly, the production of these cars ceased in 1984. Commodore sales also fell, and for a time lost to the position of Commodore Ford Falcon. Sales in other segments also suffered from coming to market Ford, Mitsubishi, Toyota, Nissan. Launched in 1982 Camira beginning to sell well , but then sales have fallen because buyers found the 1.6-liter engine is not powerful enough , and the ride quality and the quality evaluated below average . Camira made just 7 years old and Holden brought a loss of 500 million Australian dollars.
In 1984, Holden introduced the VK Commodore with significant changes from the previous version of VH. In 1986, Commodore was again updated , with new front and rear . The controversial decision was to put on a Commodore 3,0 liter Nissan RB30 engine and four-speed automatic transmission. Change the engine required in connection with the adoption of the law on the crude gasoline. The decision to use a Japanese transmission led to the closure of the plant in Woodville .
Holden began to sell based on the Suzuki Swift Barina in 1985. In the previous year, Holden rebadzhili Nissan Pulsar and began to let Holden Astra. Soon, Holden entered into an agreement with Toyota and created United Australian Automobile Industries (UAAI). After that, Australians began to produce rebadzhennye Toyota Corolla and Camry, respectively named Holden Nova and Apollo.
The company was transformed during the 1990s , increasing its stake in the Australian market from 21% in 1991 to 28.2 % in 1999. In addition to producing the best-selling car in Australia, Holden continued to sell a lot of engines produced in Australia over the ocean . In this decade, Holden decided to import machines that they needed to provide a full range of competitive cars.
April 26, 1990 the New Zealand division of GM, Holden New Zealand, announced that production on the assembly line in Trentheme will be split between the stages produced vehicles will be imported free from taxation . During the 1990s, the Australian government has asked automakers to stop the decline of customs duties on imported cars . In 1997, taxes have fallen to 22.5 % from 57.5 % a decade earlier , and by 2000 it was planned to reduce the tax to 15%. Holden was in a crisis situation , its management has reported that Australia's population is too small for such measures, and these reforms will lead to the destruction of the local industry.
Holden restarted earlier Discontinued Statesman in 1990 , this time under the name Holden, as the Statesman and Caprice. In 1991, Holden introduced in the Statesman and Caprice are a number of improvements such as ABS on all 4 wheels, despite the fact that the Statesman Caprice from the 1976 standard with rear wheel drive. This innovation is added and korotkobaznym Commodore in 1992. In 1993 VN Commodore received a new generation of VR. Compared with its predecessor , VR was 80 % new car . In 1997 he launched a new Commodore VT. Monaro restarted on the new Commodore became known to the world after his concept was shown at the Australian Motor Show . New Monaro appeared in 2001, and he will be released until 2005.
Rebadzhennye cars from UAAI initially sold poorly , but the Holden Commodore, Toyota Camry and Corolla sold well under their original names. UAAI broke up in 1996 , and Holden again began to sell only cars GM. This has led to the closure of the plant in Victoria. Developed by Opel in Germany and Holden Astra Vectra occupied a niche vacated by Holden Nova and Apollo. Also changed the base Barina - instead Suzuki Swift began to use Opel Corsa. Holden Vectra assembly began in 1998 , and these cars were exported to Japan and Southeast Asia with Opel nameplates . However Vectra did not reach the level of sales necessary to maintain the local assembly , and since 2000 all the Vectra were imported to Australia from overseas.
Market growth Holden 1990s gave way to the decline in the 2000s . In Australia, the market share fell from 27.5 % in 2000 to 15.2 in 2006. Since March 2003, Holden is the number one seller in Australia , now it's place was taken by Toyota. These events , coupled with the cost of creating a completely new car seriously undermined the company's budget . Each year the company suffered losses , a new assembly line was closed in 2005 , just two years after opening. To close the vacancies Holden has launched an advertising campaign that offered deep discounts on their cars work .
Commodore updated in 2002. In 2004 began production of restyled models with the new engine High Feature engine. Built a new production line for such engines capacity of 900 units per day, which is brought to the treasury Australia 5.2 billion Australian dollars. High Feature engine put on a brand new VE Commodore. Unlike previous generations, the new Commodore did not use the platform of Opel.
During the 1990s, the basis of many cars Holden lay prototypes Opel. To increase revenue , Holden turned their attention to the South Korean company Daewoo. First of all Barina was replaced by Daewoo Kalos platform in 2005 , although it was published under the same title. In the same year, based on Viva Daewoo Lacetti was replaced Holden Astra Classic, but despite that in 2004 there was a new Astra. Next came the Captiva SUV in 2006. After discontinuation of Frontera and Jackaroo in 2003, at the Holden was only one wheel drive car - sedan Adventura, built on Commodore. The next step Vectra replaced the Korean analogue Epica in 2007. After disconnecting Isuzu and GM Holden lost the rights to produce cars under the name of Rodeo. Therefore, this model is released after restyling in 2008 under the name of Colorado. Since 2010 it is planned to produce in Australia, the localized version of Chevrolet Cruze. This production will create 600 jobs at a factory Holden.